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New Development Mode of Urban Culture

Fu Jianping

(Hunan City University, Yiyang, Hunan 413000, China)
 
Abstract: From the “new urbanization” social perspective, this paper focus on the development of law of urban culture and make an investigation of Coordination of Urban-Rural Development guided by the principle of “new urbanization” and on the basis of our national condition as well as seeking truth form reality. In line with the Party’s 18th National Congress and the Third Plenary Session of the 18th Central Committee, this paper makes a series of discussions to explore urban culture under the guidance of “urban-rural integration” and “Eco-living”, and comb the core value system of socialism, the new urbanization theory connotation, extension and elements of carding by using the literature analysis, comparative analysis and experience method. It will clarify the development law of new urban culture and explicit the importance of urban knowledge theory in the construction of urban culture soft power in hopes of further opening a new way for the new urbanization, making a contribution to the enhancement of the urban culture soft power.
Key words: new urbanization; urban culture; exploration.
 

The “National New-type Urbanization Plan (2014- 2020)” enacted by the CPC Central Committee and the State Council, formulated explicitly that “new urbanization” must be people- oriented and to promote urbanization along the right direction. Such a huge urbanization planning came to the forefront for the people and lifts them up. Thus, the realization of our ideal urbanization, the position of the urban culture and the important role of urban culture has been a matter of widely concern.  
The connotation of “New Urbanization” 
The so-called new urbanization adhere to the principle of people-oriented, and of considering the new industrialization as the driving force, and of the overall consideration so as to promote the urban modernization, urban cluster, urban ecology, and rural urbanization, as well as comprehensively enhancement of the quality and level of urbanization. This is a good way for the urbanization construction with the characteristics of scientific development, intensive and high efficiency, perfect function, friendly environment, social harmony, distinct personality, urban-rural integration, and coordinated development of large and small towns.
The “new” in new urbanization is a significant change form emphasizing the quantity and large size of a town to focusing on its quality and benefits. It takes the “Eco-living” and sustainable development as the guidance to promote urban culture, and regards the connotation of public service as the center to make our cities and towns a higher quality livable place. The transfer of rural population into cities realizes the perfect shift from peasants to citizens, rather than blindly build many-storied buildings and squares. Under the circumstances of ecological environment to be protected and low rural productivity, shifting the rural population into cities can not only improve the ecological environment and promote the scale merit of agriculture but achieve the goal of expanding domestic demand.
The needs of times development
During China’s reform and opening-up in the past 30 years, China’s economy witnessed a progressive develop- ment, and it, especially in the last century 90’s, had enjoyed a golden development , with a large number of migrant workers flocking into the cities and the rapid expansion of floating population and with an increase of about 20 million people each year. Migrant workers constituted the main force of the “Chinese manufacturing”, which had brought the huge “demographic dividend” for the Chinese economy. Having getting on the fast lane of development, urbanization has enjoyed a mutual benefit and interaction with industriali- zation and modernization, and the urbanization rate has increased from 17.92% in 1978 to 53.37% in 2013.
China’s urbanization level have increased dramatically in the past 30 years, but the urbanization development model of "devaluing people" has already been difficult to continue, and China's economy has also been in a dilemma. Although the migrant workers have made great contribution to the development of cities and towns, and created a lot of wealth, but they suffered from the dilemma that the local government and enterprises "need the land rather than the people” and “want the value of labor power rather than the value of migrant workers”. From the latter half of 1990s to the beginning of the 21st Century, a series of policies to limit the flow of migrant workers were approved, which became the "stumbling block" in migrant workers’ entering cities. At that time, the transfer of rural labor force to cities needs to pay a series of fees, including floating population management fees, temporary residence fees, labor adjustment costs, migrant workers and business people management services, urban expansion fees, family planning management fee, and the cancellation of these charges were not announced until 2001 by the relevant authorities. Urbanization and reform reach the new crossroads at the same time.
In the age of economic integration and information globalization, the competition between countries focus on the comprehensive national strength, and urban competitiveness has become a major factor for the competition between countries. As modern cities and towns in Western Europe are evolved based on  "industrial village" and the traditional commercial town built in period of industrialization, it is impossible for us to achieve the goal of modernization even if we make another one hundred years plan if we follow the western original development model, however, if we concentrate the limited public resources to the large towns, it will inevitably lead to excessive expansion of urban population, causing trouble to the development of urbanization. There are huge historical opportunities and several challenges for our China's urbanization.
The new-style urbanization, with the people - oriented as its core, involves a series of reforms to be breakthrough, including the reform of household registration system, land system, the reform of the fiscal and taxation system, administrative reform and so forth. While the household registration system and land system should be given the first priority, aiming at breaking down the thousands of years of barriers between the rural and urban, peasants and citizens. The basic characteristics of new-style urbanization are the urban-production interaction, urban and rural overall development, ecological and livable, urban-rural integration, and the harmonious development of economical and intensive, which is the urbanization of mutual promoting and the coordinated development of the new rural communities, the small towns and cities, medium-sized and large cities. The core of the new urbanization is not at the expense of ecology and environment, agriculture and food but focus on rural areas and rural residents, and makes efforts to realize integration and equalization of public service and urban and rural infrastructure construction so as to achieve common prosperity and promote economic and social development. The CPC and the country put forward the new-style urbanization. In fact, it has involved all aspects of the society from the large cities to the rural new harmonious social relationship in production and marketing, cooperation and interaction.
With the gradually decline of the proportion of primary industry in the national economy, secondary industry and the tertiary industry, especially the share of services in the tertiary industry, have increased progressively, and the structural changes of surplus rural labor to cities and towns. Urbanization is a process that rural population centralizes in the cities, to be more specific, it means the increasing of towns and the rapid expansion of urban population, which is   a kind of explosive growth. Many people from one generation to another spare no effort in the progress of urbanization. Constant explorations of social practice are involved in urbanization from initial formation of towns to the expansion and the perfect position of towns. Mean while, formation and development of urban cities also changed the ways of living, production and organization of human society.
The needs of the Party and the country
Our Party and country have developed two "Centennial project". According to them, we are expected to expand the national economy, perfect all systems and fully complete the establishment of a well-off society when the Party celebrate its centenary which is only 7 years left ; we should also realize the basic of modernization, build a prosperous, democratic and culturally advanced socialist country, and reach the level of moderately developed countries. We should not only learn from the western urbanization, but also take lessons of urbanization from developing countries. An all-round strategic deployment was put forward in People's 18th congress: building a well-off society and making five into one. The construction of urban culture has attracted the world attention. The 5,000 years of Chinese traditional culture would be merged with the development of towns, supporting the sustainable development of the urbanization.
The cultural soft power of a town is the major component of urban comprehensive competitiveness. It offers urban comprehensive strength spiritual impetus and intellectual support, and urban competitiveness is an important factor for the national strength. Therefore, the town's cultural soft power played an important role in enhancing the overall national strength. The core of town's cultural soft power is innovation, while cultural industries are the carrier. Creating cultural products and cultural brand is one of means to reinforce the urban cultural soft power. The sustainable development of urban economy and all-round social progress will be promoted by the enhancement of cultural competitiveness. Therefore, the enhancement of urban cultural soft power will be beneficial to the urban comprehensive competitiveness. It will also improve the country's capacity for independent innovation, accelerate the transformation of economic development pattern and realize sound and fast economic development. It is an important issue for government and the academic to study on the acceleration and enhancement of the town culture soft power to reach the goal of sustainable economic and social development in urban areas. It is also highlighted by them that how to promote the urban competitiveness though the heritage force, innovation force and guarantees heritage force, innovation force, guarantees force and cohesion force of the urban material culture and system culture and spirit culture, and making use of the influence of the urban cities. Knowledge-based town is a new concept of urban sustainable development in 21st century. It is accompanied by the rise of the knowledge economy and knowledge management movement. What's more, it is formed by the western academics who reflect on the problems existing in the process of urbanization development.
The People's 18th Congress pointed out that: There are two general goals of deepening the reforms in an all-round-way. One is to perfect and develop the Socialist system with Chinese characteristics and the other is to promote the modernization of national governance systems and governance capacity. We should pay more attention to the system, integrity, and collaboration of the reform. We should accelerate the process of the development of socialist market economy, democracy, advanced culture, harmonious society and conservation culture. We should take full advantage of labors, knowledge, technology, management and capital. We should seize every chance to create social wealth. We should allow all our fellows to share the fruit of development.
The most important is to enhance the cultural creativity of the whole nation in building Socialist culture in China. Efforts to deepen cultural institutions reform, liberate and develop cultural productivity should be made so as to give a full play to academic democracy and art democracy, and to provide people with more broader cultural stage ,and to take full advantage of culture creativity. It is also of vital important to create a new culture chapter that people have higher ability of cultural innovation, and have more wonderful social culture life, and their basic cultural rights and interests are ensured, and moral standards, scientific and cultural qualities enhanced and the international influence of  Chinese culture increased.
At present, China is implementing a new strategy of urbanization: resource-saving and environment-friendly development plan is put on a list of the grand objective of establishing a comprehensive well-off society and of the realization of "Chinese dream". There comes a new chance for the development of China’s urban culture. it requires that the position of urban development should be reviewed, and it be injected more cultural connotation. The outlook of a town should be presented completely in the circumstance of material and humanistic culture which are intertwined and interacted. Thus, not only visible substances but also the layout and space structure of a town consist of the outlook of town clearly.
The urbanization pattern under the new urban culture
Single Guiding Cultures
The urban socialist culture must take the road of the socialist culture with Chinese characteristics under the guidance of Marxism, and adhere to the principle of serving for people and socialism. Since China’s town is the town that is guided by the system of theories of socialism with Chinese characteristics, therefore, its urban culture must be led by the nuclear value system of socialism. The nuclear value system of socialism is the soul for the rejuvenation of China and determines the development direction of socialism with Chinese characteristics. Socialist core value system includes four aspects: guiding ideology of Marxism, the common ideal of socialism with Chinese characteristics and national spirit and the spirit of the times, the Socialist view of honor and disgrace. It makes a logical framework and provides guidelines and the direction for the formation of core values. So, the urban culture shaped in the process of the urbanization especially needs to carry out the activities of learning socialist core value system, making a full use of the Socialist core value system to lead the social tendency, social cohesion and consensus. Urban cultures should consistently innovate its contents and forms under the guidance of the Marxist theoretical system and it should be reinforced by scientific theories, making contribution to adding vitality to its sustainable and healthy development. The urban culture should advocate prosperity, democracy, civilization, harmony, and call for freedom, equality, justice, the rule of law and promote patriotism, professionalism, integrity, kindness, cultivate and practice the core values of socialism. It should also firmly grasp the ideological leadership and dominance and adhere to the correct orientation to improve its leadership and strengthen the mainstream of public opinion.   The harmonious humane and ecological environment should be created during the process of the new urbanization development, and the urban and rural development should be balanced and interacted in a friendly manner, closing to real life of a town and to the urban residents. The new urbanization should be promoted with positive health factors so as to achieve the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, i.e. "China dream".
Cultural diversity
As exchanges and activities have been conducted in unprecedented depth and scope in politics and economy and culture among different countries, their values and systems and lifestyle are increasingly influencing each other. To build socialist cultural towns, it is necessary to hold a policy “let a hundred flowers blossom and a hundred schools of thought contend” and to uphold the principle of close to reality, close to life and close to the masses and to combine with real local human social heritage, allowing all the towns to be with the socialist culture with Chinese characteristics, at the same time, to demonstrate the distinctive charm of cities and towns, promoting socialist spiritual civilization and material civilization development, and creating a scientific and popular socialist culture toward modernization, the world and the future. Human culture is composed of diversified culture. The existence of human culture diversity is both the well-being of human society and the source of a perennial human culture life. Town has always been a melting pot where all nationalities and all kinds of culture interact with each other. And the new race, new culture, new customs and new social system are produced from these interactions. Before the technology of written records was invented, urban culture has experienced a long development history. In the development history and formed the characteristics of diversity in its constant collision and fusion. As Mumford said, “In today’s era, our urban culture is beyond human's control, and overwhelmed by their own rich creativity. The town is the coexistence of the cultural diversity”. The American writer, A.j. Jacobs, said, “Diversity is the nature of a town. Whatever the diversity is, it is related to the fact that towns have large population and people’s interests, grade, needs, feelings and preferences are various”. As a result of the influence of various factors such as historical development and traditional culture, towns in different countries formed different urban cultures. As the American anthropologist Ruth Benedict (Ruth Benedict) said, “the culture is just like a person, is more or less a consistent pattern, every culture has formed respective characteristic aims, and they are not necessarily the same as other types of society. The national people should follow this cultural purpose to acquire more experience step by step. All kind of behavior are merged into one affected by the cultural driving force. The combination of chaotic actions reflects the characteristics of the unique target of the culture through the most unimaginable forms change, which is caused by the integration of culture.” The urban cultural difference is the source of the difference of towns in the world.
Culture with Chinese characteristics
Driven by the struggle and development of society in a certain time and space, the characteristics of a town is shaped by the external appearance of the town by taking advantage of current civilized means which is different from other towns and includes its material and spiritual achievements. The characteristics of a town are closely related to social life and its historical style and features and they include the inner quality of people and society and it reflects the history of human civilization. Only we stand out the individual features and characteristics can our town be vibrant and colorful. The town's charm lies in the features, but the features are the basis of culture. if the town’s charm lies in the basis of culture, the key of town’s charm will depend on the cultural characteristics. Culture characteristic is the dynamic visual elements in the town’s landscape, and it is also the spirit and soul of town’s image. Especially these historic towns gradually formed a unique town culture characteristic after hundreds even thousands of years of accumulation. There is no same town in the world. When we studying towns and constructs cities and towns, the first thing we should do is to find the cultural characteristics of the town, and maintain these features in the development of towns.  After all, a town lost its culture characteristic has no vitality. On the correct road of developing the cultural towns, we should not use one size to fits all situation across the country with a model for its development, but should be on the basis of local characteristics, or it would deviate from purposes and principles of the core value systems. If we fail to make the country's major policies combined with the practice of specific town closely, the town's development would lose vitality. While it demands that the position of a town should be accurate in the process of development. For instance, the town’s development of "Chang Zhu Tan of Hunan province, which calls the environmentally friendly and the resource-conserving, should take the reality of these town into consideration and enable the town to be attractive for tourist, and to be an ecological and service-oriented town, under the overall framework of “two type ”, passing positive energy to the society.
Carrying forward traditional culture
Chinese Culture, with a history of 5000 years old, plays an important role around the world. Mr. Zhang ever said “At present, the most important quality for Chinese people is that they should be strongly of patriotic consciousness. However, a man with patriotism should be aware of the love of his country, which requires a man have a correct understanding of his country’s traditional culture”. In the development of the town culture, traditional culture is necessary to be maintained. Anything that denies or excludes traditional culture is not allowed.
However, it is necessary to excavate our traditional culture in a systematic and scientific manner, and to absorb the most important part of the traditional culture, and even to bring it to a great height of development. Since the reform of opening up, although a series of academic dissertation, monograph, literary output and films and television programs have been making researches on Chinese traditional culture, but the researches they have done are still in a small amount on the whole, and also are repeated with low level. There are few well-known works except for four famous novels. In April 2002, Mr. Song, at an international symposium, has pointed out: "It is not only the task of the historian but also the responsibility scientific and intellectual circles to study and take lessons from history. History says the soul of the Chinese and indicates the future destiny of China. Maybe in the world people don't like the Chinese to study their own history, which is not whole nonsense. Gong Zizhen, a famous poetry in Qing dynasty, had noted that if one wanted to kill all the talent and to destroy their country as well as to degenerate their morality, he should forbid them form learning their history. We and our future generations should be not tricked.” This is worth our consideration.
In the planning of the Party and the State, we have held high the banner of socialist theory with Chinese characteristics and have a full confidence in our theory and system and our development road. The urban culture should be driven by the combination of single instruction and multiple wonderful. In the process of global integration, we should protect our Chinese traditional culture and disseminate our traditional culture to the world and create a culture system with distinctive Chinese characteristics, making a great contribution to the achievement of the great goal of "the Chinese dream".
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