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The Implementation of Culture Tasks in Teaching Chinese to Australian High School Beginners: An Action Research

Ji Ma

(Duantang School, Ningbo, China)
Abstract: This paper reports a research study which focused on the combination of Task-Based Language Teaching (TBLT) and Intercultural Language Teaching (ILT) in the teaching of Mandarin as a second language to non-Chinese background beginner sat an Australian high school. Based on the model of TBLT, the researcher found that there is a lack of culture task in the earlier studies on TBLT. To fix this gap in research, the researcher who worked as a volunteer Mandarin teacher at an Australian high school, used an action research to combine ILT with TBLT through implementation of culture tasks to promote Australian students’ learning of Chinese culture and language, as well as enhance their interests in Chinese.
Key words: Culture task; task-based language teaching; teaching Chinese as a second language; Australian beginners

The research question of this study is ‘how to use culture task to teach Chinese to Australian non-background beginners and benefit their interestsin learning Chinese?’ This paper reports the teaching process of Chinese classes at an Australian high school. Action research was used asa methodology in the research. The data of research was collected from observation and reflection of the researcher who worked as a volunteer Mandarin teacher at an Australian high school, the feedback from students, and an interview from an experience teacher. The data was gathered and analyzed to evaluate the culture task in terms of benefits to the student’s learning and the teacher’s Mandarin teaching.       
Background of the Study
The Task-based teaching approach began at the early of 1980’s. Prabhu (1982) published his report in Bangalore experiment in 1982 and coined the ‘task-based approach’ in 1983 formally. As a new teaching approach, it addresses ‘let students finish a group of actual language using task which designed by teacher’ (Wang, 2005, p. 3). After that, some educator began to write the syllabus of task-based teaching approach. For example, Yalden design a syllabus for Canada government abroad affair department and gave a particular introduction in Principles of Course Design for Language Teaching (Wang, 2005, p.3). Then, in 1989, Nunan (1989) publish his Designing Tasks for the Communicative Classroom. It introduced the basic theory of task-based language teaching.
Compared with the old language teaching approach like ‘PPP’ (Presentation, Practice, and Production) and Grammar translation, TBLT can be regarded as a new-born approach. Especially in Chinese teaching, the history of TBLT implementation is only probably ten years. During the literature review, the researcher found two gaps in TCSL. One is the selection of teaching content, and another is the implementation of culture element.
To fill the gap of TCSL, the main research question of this research is on the teaching Chinese as a second language in Australia:
How to implement culture task in TCSL for high school beginner?
Culture, as a core of Intercultural Language Teaching (ILT) approach, has already been set as the object of language teaching. ‘It (learning language) involves fundamentally learning to communicate with others in that language and such communication involves an engagement with culture’ (Liddicoat, 2005, p. 1). In TCSL, researchers and teachers have also realized the important of culture teaching. They encourage TCSL teachers to teach more appropriate culture to the international students in China. A Chinese researcher provides his point of view to language and culture as follows:
Language is the carrier of culture. The learning and using of language, usually has a very close relationship with the culture of this country. The culture input of TCSL teaching, aim to improve the intercultural communication competence of students. More culture knowledge has been understood, more close to the Chinese thinking model, to some extent it can help to accelerate the process of learning knowledge and implement the knowledge which they learned better. ) (LIU, 2001, p. 34)
One of the most important principles of ILT is to develop intercultural competence, ‘In order to teach culture as a dynamic set of practices ILT has established four main activities for learning about culture: learning about cultures, comparing cultures, exploring cultures and find one’s own ‘third place’ between cultures’ (Liddicoat, 2001, p. 9). These are also can be regarded as the process of ILT to some extent. Learning the target culture is not enough, but compare it with students’ own culture, it provided a process of understanding culture which is the main object for this study.
Research design and methodology
The study used a task-based approach to teach Chinese in a high school in Western Sydney. The researcher intended to design a teaching plan for a whole term and a big task at the end of term which is introduced at the beginning. Each lesson was also a small task, which will follow the task circle. The aim of the task is to teach students something useful during the practice of task like communicative skills, Chinese culture and Chinese habit. Each class linked to the big task of the term and includes something related to the last topic or performance. At the end of the term, students were required to demonstrate their language using focusing on what they had learned. For each class, according to the teaching content, ‘culture task’ will be integrate into the class and including communication, vocabulary, handwork, calligraphy and so on.

Figure 1: Class design for ‘culture task’
After each class, I (the researcher) ask the comments and questions of class teacher and write my reflection dairy to record the class process and my own reflection and further planning. It is a very important evidence for my action research. At the end of term, some feedback from students is collected for research data and reflection. The whole plan has four major phases: planning, teaching, observation and reflection, which fit the circle of ACTION RESEARCH well.
To achieve the outcome of research, the methodology which used in this research is an action research. The methodology fits my research objectives well. First, the researcher want to be a better teacher in TSCL. Through action research, the researcher can review my teaching process with reflection on the shortcoming of it, and then get a revised plan to improve my teaching. Second, the action cycle can be used to weigh the function and impact of every element in task-based approach and intercultural language teaching approach. The can contrast each cycle to investigate the important elements for stimulating students’ interests in Mandarin learning.
Action research, which mainly aimed to develop my own teaching and research skills during the research process, is defined by Kemmis and McTaggart (2002) as:    
Action research is a form of collective, self-reflective that participants in social situations undertake to improve: (1) the rationality and justice of their own social or educational practices; (2) the participants’ understanding of these practices and the situations in which they carry out these practices. Groups of participants can be teachers, students, parents, workplace colleagues, social activists or any other community members – that is, and group with a shared concern and the motivation and will to address their shared concern. The approach is action research only when it is collaborative and achieved through the critically examined action of individual group members. (Altruchter et al, 2002, p. 125 – 126)
After the instruction of supervisors, I found my research objective and plan fit the working definition of action research quite well. Due to the limitation of space, researcher could only provide one example to show the process of culture task teaching class. A task topic of kite is designed by researcher as follows.
Kite, as a traditional Chinese art, is invented two thousand years ago in China. Kite is colorful and beautiful. It is a suitable tool for students to learn language and culture. Students could learn the colors from the kites when they make it and also other tools. On the other hand, kite is full of the culture background of Chinese. It could reflect the characteristic and the way of life of Chinese. It is also a good chance for students to compare the culture of Chinese and Australian in kite. This topic follows the structure of TBLT which makes the arrangement of language and culture input and practice more reasonable. Kite design and making is provided to students as a task to finish, during this task, students practice their language on the specified environment and condition.
Topic: Kite making Class amount: 4
Language input Culture input
Authentic text:
   The picture of Chinese kite
   The picture of colour
Structures, vocabulary and skills:
我要…(I want…)
给我…(Give me…)
这是… (This is…)
那是… (That is…)
帮我… (help me)
没关系 (my pleasure)
颜色 (colours), 笔 (pen), 纸 (paper), 橡皮 (eraser), 剪刀(scissors), 钳子 (pliers), 线 (line)…
Static culture:
The history of kite in China
       The function of kite
Dynamic culture:
The connotation of kite
       The art of kite
Design a kite
     Make a kite
     Fly a kite
Ask for tools and help during the making
revision: Greetings,
This topic has taken in the second term of year 7. It takes three lessons to finish the topic which includes designing, making and flying. Each lesson is seventy-five minutes and divided into three parts: language and culture input as pre-task in fifteen minutes, kite designing, making and flying in forty-five minutes as task, revision and further knowledge expending in fifteen minutes as post-task. Before this topic, students have learned greetings and some useful sentence for communication, for example, 谢谢xièxiè (thanks), 对不起duìbùqǐ (I’m sorry), 晚安wǎnān (good night) and so on.
The main task of this topic is kite making, an authentic taste of Chinese art. The language has been inserted in the making process and also as an assessment of language input. This topic introduces several sentences including ‘帮助我bāngzhùwǒ (help me)’, ‘给我这个gěiwǒzhègè (give me this)’, ‘我要wǒyǎo (I want)…’ The vocabulary in this topic is all related to the kite making including colours and tools. These sentences and vocabularies are all required to be used in the class during the kite making. Students are encouraged to use Chinese as much as possible as they could. For example, if a student wants to have a paper from teachers, he has to ask it in Chinese, or the paper will not be given.
The kite designing and making is all finished by students. Five students have attended the classes and make three kites. During the classes of kite making, students learned the culture of Chinese art and the speaking Chinese within the guide of teachers. It is a good experience of learning language and culture.
Teaching process and an action research
Teaching process is following the planning of the topic. Teacher implements the planning as the main line and also meet the requirement of students in language and culture. It is flexible for teacher to adjust the teaching content in the frame of the topic.
Lesson one: design a kite      
The post task begins with the authentic text which is the picture of Chinese kites. Teachers show several pictures of Chinese kites. Students have been told the arrangement of the topic and also been attracted by the beautiful color and modeling of the kite. After arouse their interests of kite, teacher introduces the history of kite in China and the function of kite. Then, teacher provides a question for them: what’s the difference between Chinese and Australian kites. This question is required to finish as a homework which students could do a little research on it.
For the language input, teacher asks students what we could learn from the kites as a guide. After conducting them how the beautiful and colorful kites are, students answer: color. Then teacher asks students what are the popular colors in their life. After students answered, teacher begins to teach them these colors. Teacher use PowerPoint to demonstrate the colors with Chinese characters and Pinyin and teach them one by one.
The sentence of this lesson is ‘我要…wǒyào… (I want…)’. After teaching the sentence, students are encouraged to use this structure to make sentence in the vocabularies of learned. The number and measure words are required to put in to the sentence. Then, teacher tells students they have to use this sentence in the kite making.
The task of this lesson is design a kite. At the beginning of the task stage, teacher ask the question of which is the most important for a kite. After get the answer of ‘balance’, teacher introduces the ‘balance’ of Chinese culture, including Chinese character and characteristic.
Then, the designing of kite has been taught briefly. Teacher explain step by step of how to design the kite, how to draw the blueprint. First is design the frame of kite, the scale of kite, and then is the picture and logo.
In the designing process, students are all very active and begin to express their own idea of making the kite. The teacher is helping students to polish their plan. Students are talking what they have learned in Chinese while designing. One student even express his idea in Chinese: ‘我要做一只鸟wǒyàozuòyìzhīniǎo. (I want to make a bird kite)’.
The kite frame design is almost finished. Teacher asks students to finish the kite as a homework including the picture and logo. Teacher also reviews the sentence and vocabularies of today’s learning to help students remember them.
Not only revision in language, culture input should be review too. A little research homework has been required students to finish during the topic of three weeks. The research topic is the history of kite in western countries and the comparison between Chinese kite and western kite. Students have to write a little report of it to present their research. They could search it on the internet and also in library.
Students like this class very much and could remember all the words they have learned. Although in the sentence teaching, it is seems too hard for them, after practicing and repeating, students could use this sentence for a lot of item they want. Students are interested in the kite design and full of creativity.    
In the designing of kite, students are all very actively during the class. They try to express their own idea of design…students tell me ‘it looks like a Chinese character’ and one student even speak in Chinese of ‘我要做一只鸟wǒyàozuòyìzhīniǎo (I want to make a bird)’. They are very happy in the lesson. (Observation and reflection, 29th April, 2010)
The language using of teacher is a problem, especially in English. It has a high requirement for teacher in English speaking. For example teacher don't know how to say scale when explain the structure of kite. And it is too hard for year 7 students to understand the scale.
When I begin to explain about the design of the kite, in designing blueprint and make scale, I don’t know how to say ‘scale’. My class teacher help me of this words but after class, she tell me that year 7 students haven't learn scale yet, so they don’t know how to deal with it. (Observation and reflection, 29th April, 2010)
Time consuming is another issue. Teacher plan to have twenty minutes in kite designing, but it has cost fifty minutes and students still cannot finish it. As a result, teacher has to change the plan and ask students to finish the design as homework.
I plan to give twenty minutes to design the kite but I obviously made a wrong estimate. It cost fifty minutes to design the kite and even not be finished. So I left the homework for them to finish the designing of structure and logo. Next lesson is making the kite. (Observation and reflection, 29th April, 2010)
Lesson two: making a kite
The language input of this class is the sentence of ‘给我… gěiwǒ..(give me…)’. As same as the sentence learned last class, this sentence is required to use in the kite making, for example ‘给我一张黄色的纸. Gěiwǒyìzhānghuángsè de zhǐ. (Give me a piece of yellow paper.)’. Another sentence ‘帮助我bāngzhùwǒ (help me)’ is also required to use when students want help from teacher. Except the vocabularies students learned last class, more words are introduced to them for application, ‘剪刀jiǎndāo (scissors)’, ‘线xiàn (line)’ and so on. The vocabularies are taught in the help of materials. Students are all going to making the kite with these materials, so they are very concentrated on it. After the revision and teaching the new words, teacher also introduces the culture of kite in the class including art, Chinese characteristics, and harmony mind.
The task of this class is mainly about making the kite. Students are expected to use Chinese as much as they can. After check the design of student as the homework last class, teacher gives some suggestions of their design. Students estimate all sorts of resources they need and ask teacher for it in Chinese. Teacher provides all the materials of kite making if students ask it in Chinese or the material will not be given to students.
After review and fix the design of kite. Students come to the teacher to get the material in the way of ‘我要一张黄色的纸(I want a piece of yellow paper)’ or ‘我要剪刀 (I want scissors)’. All the students could get the material in this way, some of them are not fluency but they still complete the conversation in the help of teacher.
Most of students choose to build the framework first. The first sentence they familiar to is ‘我要五根木棍 (I want five sticks)’. After making the framework, students begin to cut and draw the paper as the body of kite. The sentence which learned from last class of ‘给我一张黄色的纸 (Give me a piece of yellow paper)’ has been used by them. Although the reflection believes this sentence is too hard for them, they could speak it clearly in the help of teacher.
Whole lesson has been used for the kite making. Teacher checks students’ homework and their research by asking some questions. The arrangement of next class is provided to the students.
Students could use the sentence which taught last class and this class very good. Some of they are wish to express their idea in Chinese, and be proud of it.
I am very appreciate that students can use the sentence ‘我要wǒyào (I want)’ very well. Although they haven't learnt Chinese for a long time, some sentence they could not speak fluently, but they wish to and try their best to express in Chinese… One student says ‘我要五根木棍wǒyàowǔgēnmùgùn (I want five sticks)’ . Another students quickly correct him ‘四根sìgēn (four)’. (Observation and reflection, 11th May, 2010)
Students are very interested in the kite making. They are very happy to do the hand working, and enjoy the process of ask for help and tools from teacher.
They are happy and exciting. They keeping ask the question about the kite and Chinese culture. Teacher asks them whether they like this lesson, the answers are absolutely ‘yes’. (Observation and reflection, 11th May, 2010)
The language application of this class is not satisfied enough. Due to the kite making, a part of their attention has put in the making process, although teacher arranges the application chance for them.
The language using is not as good as I thought. Maybe they spend lot attention in making the kite. But in the requirement of teacher, they are applying the sentence and the new words. (Observation and reflection, 11th May, 2010)
Lesson three: Fly a kite
As an outdoor lesson, students love this lesson very much. Teacher believes give a taste lesson for them to fly the kite of their own making is quite important for student’s learning initiative and their interests towards Chinese. At the first class, the sentence and vocabularies which taught of last two classes have been reviewed to the students. It is very satisfied that they remember almost all the words. Teacher checks the kite they made and fixes the problem of it. Three kites have been made by them, a bird, a panda, and a warrior mask.
The language input is about action. ‘跑 (run)’ and ‘停 (stop)’ was taught to students as a order. They are required to use these words for their kite flying. As all the lessons have been taught, students are encouraged to use as much Chinese as they could during the outdoor lesson.
Different from a formal language lesson, culture task is emphasis on the experience of students in Chinese culture activities. The main task today is flying the kite and teacher becomes a captain. Teacher introduces several important perspectives in kite flying, including wind, flying skills and controlling. Students even cannot wait to fly their own works. Teacher demonstrates how to fly the kite and then give every group the chance to fly the kite.
Students are very happy to fly the kite. Although in most of the time, they are running and laughing because they cannot fly the kites into the sky. But no one is frustrated by that. They are keeping running and flying the kite. When they tired, they ask teacher a lot question about the kite. Due to their research on internet, kite is invented for the war. They want to know why and whether it is real. Teacher explains the origin of kite in Chinese, and have communicate and comparison with them. In the flying of the kites, ‘跑 (run)’ and ‘停 (stop)’ is used by students, they are very happy to use these two orders. One student flying the kite, another is crying in Chinese: ‘跑跑跑’ when kite drop on the land, students are all shout: ‘停停停’ cheerfully.
When the happy comes, time flies. Although the kites didn't actually fly into the sky, students are quite happy with this lesson. They all say they are looking forward of the next class.
Back to the classroom, teacher checks their homework of research. Students all finish their research as a small thesis. It will become one part of their assessments of Chinese.
At the last ten minutes of lesson, teacher reviews all the sentence and vocabularies of this topic to students. Teacher provides the plan of next topic. They are all very exciting when they heard of the plan, which is the excursion to China town.
Students enjoy this lesson very much as same as the last two classes, especially this class. And the language application is satisfied according to the observation of teacher.
They are quite happy to have an outdoor lesson. Students could use the language as required from teacher and their memories of vocabularies are very good. Teacher believes their interesting in learning reduce their nervous of language application and improve the result of their acquisition. (Observation and reflection, 21th May, 2010)
The observation shows students learning result are quite good in language application, culture taste and also in culture comparison. The lesson provided the chance for students to practice language in the culture task. The homework research provides the culture comparison in students’ own perspective.
Different from the normal lesson, this culture task, especially the little research, intends to provide the chance to students and let them to discover the culture. And by the communication with teacher, their discovery could have a comparison with teacher’s opinion. Through this process, students are more interested in the Chinese and their works. (Observation and reflection, 21th May, 2010)
Except the time consuming, culture task has a high requirement to teachers. The outdoor lessons are interesting and relax, but teacher has to guide students to apply the language in their activities.
Students could forget the language when they fly the kites. Teacher has to join the activities with them; offers enough help and remind them to use the language. Once teacher release the students too much, their language using and learning will be reduced. (Observation and reflection, 21th May, 2010)
Kite making task is a successful plan for students. In the task, students learned several sentences which could be widely using in their life. Meanwhile, this task provides a cultural experience for student in hand making, art, and personality of Chinese.
In the task process, students are quite happy in learning language and finish the task. Observation and later feedback from students all show that students love this task and also the way of teaching. They feel relax and wish to follow the guide of teacher. The result of applying language and culture acquisition is satisfied according to the observation of teacher.
Except the positive perspective, some issues should be pay attention and reflected. Previously, the language implementation is not good enough. How to deal with student’s attention, balanced in using language and doing task, should be consider in culture task. Secondly, how to test the students acquisition on culture? It could be a long time work to do; researcher hopes students could benefit from the culture task for their further life. In this perspective, their interest in the lesson is more important than assessment.
Finds and discussion
After approve the feasibility of research and teaching theory of culture task, the definition of culture task has been reviewed and refined to provide the updated understanding of culture task. The culture task if defined in the operational aspect, which is implementing in a specific school and volunteer program. It is the combination of TBLT and ILT, and be applied in a small class with five students and with the objectives of enhance the interests of students.
The definition of culture task leads to the specialty of culture task. Six aspects are mentioned in this paper according to the researching and teaching experience. Firstly, culture experience and interest is the most important aim in culture task. Researcher use the metaphor of ‘open the door’ to describe the objective of culture task according to the designing of culture task. Secondly, the situation of culture task implementation is specifically and specially. It combines the role of VTR (volunteer teacher as researcher) with small class teaching, few lessons and beginner students together. As the specific implementation of culture task, it effects on the objectives of plan, lesson application and its spreading and proving. Thirdly, as researcher described, language and culture are dynamic combining in the culture task. The framework of culture task is the TBLT, while the soul inside is ILT. In the culture task teaching, researcher paid attention on the combining of culture and language and try to implement the lesson in a balance way from the plan to assessment. Fourthly, teachers and students are all the center of teaching. As the dual core in computer, researcher also balances the role of teacher and student in the teaching, which try to provide students more initiative in language learning, especially in task process. The fifth is about the class atmosphere, which is flexible and relaxing in class. It has been demonstrated in the class that students all love that relaxing and flexible lesson. The last aspect is about authentic, that means culture task is based on the real life. The culture knowledge and language are taught according the real Chinese life. Researcher believes all these aspects form the culture task. It could be view as the specialty of culture task, and also the identity of culture task teaching.
After the definition and identification of culture task, some findings and discussions in culture task teaching have been proved according to the literature, data, and experience of researcher. At first, the language of teacher in Chinese class could be English and more Chinese as the process carry on. It could be debate in the teaching, but actually some Chinese researcher including interviewed teacher, they agree that teacher could use English in Chinese according to the situation. Some researcher even regards it as a competency of teacher. From the teaching of researcher, the language researcher uses is mostly English, and more and more Chinese which taught by students is using in after teaching.
The second discussion is about the role of teachers. Some researcher believes that the TBLT belong to the students centered approach, which is advocating to make learning more meaningful to individual. But some experience teachers believe that in the Chinese teaching, teacher centered is still the effective approach of teaching. Researcher combines these two attitudes towards the role of teacher. According to the culture task, in language input stage, teacher should in charge of the whole class to deliver the knowledge of language and culture. In the task stage, students could be center of class, and teacher could provide more freedom for them in learning and implementation.
As same as the role of teacher, some teachers figure out the different idea in judgment of success to students. Because the exam system is not suitable for the culture task, the judgment of success could be taken in another way. The ‘sensitive point’ has been figured out from the TCSL researcher and teacher that when the students meet something related to Chinese, and they have learned before, they will recall the learning content and interest in it. If they could remember something or could speak some due the teaching, that could be view as a success to students and teacher. Not only the recalling of knowledge, but also the communication of students. It could be both language communication and culture communication, which could be viewed as the reducing of culture conflict in their life. As the conclusion, the assessment and judgment of success could be check from three parts, which are interest, recalling of knowledge, and communication.
From the success judgment, it is clearly that culture is significant in the research. Researcher and teachers are all believe that culture is everywhere. It contains two parts, firstly, every aspect of life could reflect the culture, for example, music, sports, and food; secondly, the language could also deliver the culture in pronunciation, vocabulary, and sentence. It also provide an idea to researcher that the language teaching and culture teaching could affect and help each other, as a result, the balance of culture teaching and language teaching is important for researcher in further research and teaching.
The advantages and disadvantages of culture task: During the implementation and reflection, the researcher finds both advantages and disadvantages of culture task. The advantage of culture task could be three parts. It actually benefits the students, teacher, and TCSL.
The advantages of culture task for students have been mentioned a lot. The culture task is benefit for their interest towards Chinese learning, which is one of the objectives of researcher. It teaches students both language and culture, and provides them more chance for understanding and communication. On the other hand, culture task also benefit for the researcher, which is the teacher of TCSL implementer. The culture task class is relax and harmony, which release the burden of teacher from simple language teaching. In teaching, researcher found that the mood of teacher is quite happy as the students in teaching. The culture task design and teaching makes teacher looking forward to the Chinese teaching, he loves to teach in this way and loves to see students are learning and happy. On the aspect of TCSL teaching, the culture task affects not only the students in class, but also to other students. It has been comments by other students as a very interesting class, some students express that they are willing to attend the Chinese class and the culture task. The Chinese class was only five students in this term but the number of students will grows to thirty next term. Hopefully, culture task has some contribution in it.
The disadvantages of culture task in quite important, it is a reflection of researcher in teaching. As it has been triangulated by the research’s reflection, teachers’ comments and literature, the disadvantages of culture can be summarized in five points. First of all, the time consuming is a weakness of culture task. Secondly, the content of teaching is not so easy to fit in the task. Thirdly, the class management and control is a problem. Fourthly, it is not only time consuming, but also costly of material. Finally, the culture has a high requirement to teacher.
All in all, the culture task is benefit the students in interest, learning, initiative, communication, and understanding in culture, also helps teacher has a better teaching condition while doing well in disseminate the Chinese lesson and culture. It still have some problems or disadvantages in costly of time and material, balance of teaching is class, class management and control as the limitation of culture task. Hopefully, in the further research and teaching, culture task could be more fit in to the teaching and reference other Chinese teachers.
Reviewing this research, the approach of culture task has carried a lot of hope and idea of Chinese teaching. It is mainly about the combination of culture and language in language teaching. As a try of teaching culture and language, the research has demonstrated that culture could also be the center of teaching, while teach language as well. The culture task could be improved to be used in the Chinese teaching. It is suitable for teaching with the objectives of interests and understanding of culture rather than exam. It best be taken in a small class, with enough supportive of time and recourses. It is better to have a long term planning rather than a short topic. Teacher should be patient, because it affects slow but sustainably.
As a teacher, I improve my skill and competence during the culture task teaching, and get more familiar with the Chinese teaching. To students, it is glad to see they were interested in the Chinese learning and learned some important knowledge and skills about the culture and language. Hopefully, it has some effect in the program of West Sydney region, and possibly provides some ideas for the Chinese teacher in TCSL or TCFL.
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